Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice
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The six metrics of fish community composition studied exhibited substantial variability both among sites see Fig 2 and over time within sites. River sites such as site 6 illustrated in S1 Fig , that show no real long-term trends in their metrics of fish community composition, still nevertheless experienced 4-fold variation in the number of species per m 2 over time and 8-fold variation in the number of fish per m 2 over time.
Part of this variation is likely to be associated with natural biological cycles and stochastic events, part of the variation may also be associated with the precision of the survey technique. The resultant variability of the metrics influences the power of statistical tests i. Statistical power analysis of this study, according to the method described by Stroup [ 30 ], revealed that the probability of correctly detecting a statistically significant effect, for the magnitude of effect sizes observed in this study, was 0.
In this study we investigated the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact BACI study design that is more robust than previous studies [ 19 — 20 ], that makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected according to standardised methods as part of national and international monitoring programmes.
The construction of ROR HEP schemes is estimated to have a small negative effect on the number of species per m 2 In control sites there was a small increase in mean species richness, by 0. These results do not suggest that the construction and operation of ROR HEP schemes are causing any catastrophic collapse of the fish community. However, the results could indicate that the construction and operation of ROR HEP schemes could potentially suppress small increases in species richness that may have been observed over time had the ROR HEP schemes been absent. It is worth noting that the control and impact groups were different at baseline with respect to the species richness metric 0.
Nevertheless, these findings warrant further investigation to establish the likely mechanisms of community composition change and to better understand longer-term trends in community composition. With any inferential statistical test there is always the possibility that when a difference does exist, the test will not be able to identify it. This type of mistake is called a Type II error [ 31 ]. The statistical power of a test refers to the probability of making a Type II error. It is generally accepted that statistical power should be 0.
However, consideration and reporting of statistical power is rare in environmental science studies. Whilst it can be difficult to achieve a power of 0. Statistical power analysis for this study revealed that the probability of correctly detecting a statistically significant effect, for the magnitude of effect sizes observed in this study was 0.
For this study to have had a statistical power of 0. For prospective studies, the statistical power could be increased through an increased number of passes within the fish surveys at each site and an increased number of fish surveys at each site, in addition to an increased number of sites within the study. The data used here were assembled from public sources with statistical noise introduced from variation in both the sampling methods and effort. By designing sampling with statistical analysis in mind [ 20 ], these external effects can be minimized, and sampling effort can be more efficiently allocated.
Future research should take this statistical power analysis into consideration when attempting to design studies to detect the impacts of interventions on fish communities in temperate streams and rivers. For example, a recent non-peer-reviewed report [ 34 ] examined before and after construction fish community composition data for 10 high-head ROR HEP schemes ranging in capacity from 0. Most of the HEP schemes had fish monitoring data in the depleted reaches i.
This report examined each HEP scheme separately, focussing on potential impacts on populations of Atlantic salmon and brown trout. A peer-reviewed article by Santos et al [ 35 ] reported the results of a post-construction spatial analysis of fish communities upstream and downstream of 18 ROR HEP schemes ranging in capacity from 0. However, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of previous research in this field; the studies are often constrained by the absence of long-term standardised data and weak study design; mainly relying on post-construction observations e.
Santos et al. For example, if ROR HEP schemes were responsible for direct fish mortality as a result of contact with turbine blades, or a decline in fish population associated with increased barriers to migration, then we may expect to observe these effects in fish populations upstream and downstream of the hydrologically-depleted reach as well as in the depleted reach itself.
When studies lack independent control sites, it is more difficult to detect a change and to ascertain whether any observed change in the fish community was caused by the intervention of interest, or by other factors affecting the sites within the region of interest e. Furthermore, if a study only has post-treatment monitoring, but the control and treatment groups were different at baseline before installation of the ROR HEP scheme , or in the case of the Santos et al [ 35 ] study the upstream and downstream stretches comparators were different e. Run-of-river HEP schemes, at least those in Europe, tend to be constructed on sites with existing weirs and barriers [ 12 , 24 ] and therefore they are likely to have different fish communities at baseline relative to pristine sites in similar but more natural environments.
In this study different types of ROR HEP schemes were grouped together, regardless of design features such as turbine type, capacity, or head height. The authors recognise that different scheme designs may have different biological impacts, but we were not able to conduct any sub-analysis owing to the limited number of replicates of each scheme design and the limited statistical power.
This would help gain better constraints on the absolute effects e. However, it should be recognised that the results may be regulation-specific, and that most of the ROR HEP schemes included in this study have been developed in accordance with best-practice guidance from the respective regulatory authorities of England and Wales [ 36 — 38 ]. Ten of the ROR HEP schemes in this study had fish passes constructed as part of a licence requirement, and two other ROR HEP schemes in the study were constructed on weirs with existing fish passes prior to construction. Furthermore, twenty one of the ROR HEP schemes included in this study had hands-off flow thresholds as part of their licence, to prevent abstraction during low flows.
For ROR HEP schemes built in countries with a significantly different set of regulatory requirements, the effects of the schemes may be dissimilar to those observed in this study.
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Asterisks indicate that fish monitoring is within the depleted reach of a HEP scheme. The authors would like to thank colleagues at the Environment Agency and Natural Resources Wales for help finding data and discussing sampling methods. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not represent the position of NERC or the Environment Agency. Conceived and designed the experiments: GSB. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.
Abstract The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power HEP schemes have been well-documented in the literature. Download: PPT. Fig 1. Locations of the 23 HEP schemes with spatially and temporally co-located fish monitoring data. Fig 2. Fitted least square mean before and after values for the six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition for control and impact groups. Table 1. Table 2. BACI model effect size and standard error in parenthesis for the six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition.
Discussion In this study we investigated the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact BACI study design that is more robust than previous studies [ 19 — 20 ], that makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected according to standardised methods as part of national and international monitoring programmes. Supporting Information. S1 Fig. Time-series of fish community composition for ROR HEP scheme 6: An example of temporal variability in metrics of fish community composition within a site.
S1 Table. Meta-data on each HEP scheme. S2 Table.
Fish community data for each survey, for each site, for the six metrics of fish community composition. S3 Table. Meta-data on fish monitoring for each impact and control site. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank colleagues at the Environment Agency and Natural Resources Wales for help finding data and discussing sampling methods. References 1. International Energy Agency. World energy outlook , International Energy Agency, Technology roadmap: Hydropower. Baxter R. Environmental effects of dams and impoundments.
Annu Rev Ecol Syst. View Article Google Scholar 4. Regional effects of hydrologic alterations on riverine macrobiota in the New World: Tropical-temperate comparisons. View Article Google Scholar 5. Poff NL, Hart D. How dams vary and why it matters for the emerging science of dam removal. View Article Google Scholar 6. Fish behavior in relation to passage through Hydropower turbines: a review. Trans Am Fish Soc ; — View Article Google Scholar 8.
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Developing fish passage and protection at hydropower dams. Appl Anim Behav Sci ; — View Article Google Scholar 9. The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat: a global assessment. View Article Google Scholar Abbasi T, Abbasi SA. Small hydro and the environmental implications of its extensive utilization. Renew Sust Energ Rev. Paish O. Micro-hydropower: Status and prospects.
Proc Inst of Mech Eng. Water and Environment Journal. Moomaw W. Fthenakis V, Kim HC. Life-cycle uses of water in U. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ; — British Hydropower Association.
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A guide to UK mini-hydro developments. The British Hydropower Association. Available: www. Guidelines for micro hydropower development: Spatial plans and local arrangement for small hydro. Kucukali S, Baris K. Energy Policy. Robson AL. Implications of small-scale run-of-river hydropower schemes on fish populations in Scottish streams Doctoral dissertation, University of Hull. Underwood AJ. The mechanics of spatially replicated sampling programs to detect environmental impacts in a variable world.
Australian Journal of Ecology.
On beyond BACI: sampling designs that might reliably detect environmental disturbances. Ecological Applications. Development of a fisheries classification scheme. Synopsis Product Details Delivery Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between kW and 50 MW.
In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen. As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it is very important to make sure that everything is designed to be simple, reliable and long lasting. The book is based on the experience gained over 45 years on the overall and detailed design, construction and commissioning of more than 30 small hydropower schemes.
It includes contributions from experts in the field of intakes, water diversion structures, geology, canals, painting and other aspects of hydropower development. It is intensely practical with many drawings and photographs of schemes designed and commissioned by Leyland Consultants and others. There are also sections on preparing specifi cations, tender assessment and operation and maintenance. The book includes a CD with spreadsheet programs for analysing aspects of small hydropower development and many arrangement drawings and detail designs for gates, penstocks, electrical systems and control systems.
Typical specifi cations for generating plant are also included. The spreadsheets will be useful during the feasibility stage and the drawings will enable designers to scale the designs as needed for their own projects. Consultants, developers, designers, builders and operators of small hydroelectric schemes will find this book invaluable.. Let's Try No, Thanks. Select the List you'd like to categorise as, or add your own. Here you can mark if you have read this book, reading it or want to read.
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