The Cyberspace Handbook (Media Practice)
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Therefore, to know principles and codes of ethics in the field of technology and medical education is necessary to develop medical education on cyberspace; otherwise, unintended consequences may occur in relation to learning outcomes. This type of thinking about system quality is essential and it can be applied to the development of an actual medical education on cyberspace. Output, quality, universality and capability are main indices of program evaluation.
It has covered most of the learning objectives and performance on cyberspace 69 - The first step of "Call to Action" at this level requires cyber-literacy. Laura J. Gurak suggests that literacy in cyberspace means much more than technology literacy. At this level, technology acceptance and user preferences are generally ignored and more technologies are prescriptive.
The cyber generations are diverse in their learning performance which is related to personality traits, values, attitudes and interest of self-learning; therefore, special attention on these individual differences for design and development of medical education on cyberspace is a useful step. Our results have covered two areas including technological and institutional structure which are critical for medical education on cyberspace. Based on the evidence, conceptualization of medical education in cyber space as a systemic approach is essential for effective design, implementation, evaluation and development of many related topics in health system 72 - In this study, we introduced cyber medical education, as a set of policies, decisions, strategies, processes, programs, performances and interactions in the health system architecture.
Based on the above evidence, a complex map of the critical points of the medical education system on cyberspace, which was highlighted in all six taxonomy levels, emerged in our study. It is necessary to emphasize on the building of a network bridging between all dimensions, components and indices of medical education system on cyberspace as mentioned in table 1 although it will be difficult without creative viewpoints and integrative platforms.
Several mechanisms were also identified for improving and developing medical education on cyberspace see table 2. These include mechanisms related to policy and strategy formation, cyber infrastructure management, network collaboration, cyber medical education services provision, functions and performance assessment as mentioned above. In this sense, our investigation was in line with some findings on the capabilities of the cyberspace to create new opportunities in the field of medical education 7 , 11 - 14 , 58 - 66 and also toward the challenges and threats that other researchers mentioned in their studies 5 , 6 , 25 , 40 , 67 - A health system must quickly adapt to cyber science and provide medical education within cyberspace at different levels 78 - We developed a new taxonomy for medical education on cyberspace which took into account health system structure.
This taxonomy can be useful for policy makers and system designers. We believe it is useful for the understanding of medical education on cyberspace and it helps with provision of an integrated framework for development. Although cyberspace creates new opportunities in medical education system, adaptation solutions are fragmented in various sectors.
Development of the medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary work. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved in the development of cyber-based medical education. Without this convergence, we will be blind to the decisions made by others within the system. The health system should also involve those sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace.
Integrated planning, governance and administration are pivotal to the promotion of the medical education on cyberspace. It is clear that any kind of direct or indirect decisions related to governance level can impact on the whole medical education system. Future research can explore how stewards at upstream levels impact on the development of medical education in cyberspace, what leaders say about medical education in cyberspace and the role of cyberspace in clinical learning in a health system.
This article is part of PhD thesis conducted by zohreh khoshgoftar and supervised by Dr. Yazdani, Dr. Ahmady, Dr. Rastegarpour and Dr.
Media Practice: Cyberspace Handbook by Jason Whittaker (2003, Hardcover)
We would like to express our appreciation to Vice-President, Research of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences for financial support of this research. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Adv Med Educ Prof. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail : moc. Received May 8; Accepted Jul This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Introduction: Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. Results: We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace.
Conclusion: Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. Keywords: Medical education , Educational technology , Health information technology , Health system. Results After excluding irrelevant studies a total of documents were selected that were clustered into six levels for the present study. Table 1 Medical education on cyberspace: level, dimension, component and index. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Critical mechanisms for development of medical education on cyberspace. Levels Views on suggested mechanisms to develop cyber-based medical education Cyber level Collaborative decision making on cyber-based medical education by common policy council or committee.
Technical planning in design, development, evaluation, and management on cyber-based medical education. Technological integration of cyber infrastructure for high confidence cyber-based medical education. Assess key performance indicators KPI to measure and improve performance at present levels. Governance level Policy-planning and policy-formulation by the power elite on cyber-based medical education issues.
Resource allocation and support funding mechanisms on cyber-based medical education at all level. Conflicts of interest between different stakeholders through integrated stewardship. Strategic analysis and strategic palming through out-of-the-box thinking on cyber-based medical education. Providing adequate facilities for current and future research and development in cyber-based medical education. Standardization for quality improvement and accreditation in order to share accountability. Organization level Joint administrative procedures and regulatory plans on cyber-based medical education.
Application of service-oriented architecture to service provision on cyberspace at all level of medical education. Use of international experience and best practices of development of medical education on cyberspace. Program level Improve curriculum design on cyberspace through modeling global learning design considering culture.
Design and implementation cyber-based curriculum planning as development mechanism in medical education. Conduct continuing professional development and ethical proficiency through cyber-based programs. Performance level Improve cyber literacy and enhance higher order thinking skills at all level of medical education system. Apply best open source content management system and use learning software based on user preference.
Discussion Our results have covered two areas including technological and institutional structure which are critical for medical education on cyberspace. Conclusion Although cyberspace creates new opportunities in medical education system, adaptation solutions are fragmented in various sectors. Future researches Future research can explore how stewards at upstream levels impact on the development of medical education in cyberspace, what leaders say about medical education in cyberspace and the role of cyberspace in clinical learning in a health system. Acknowledgement This article is part of PhD thesis conducted by zohreh khoshgoftar and supervised by Dr.
Conflict of Interest: None declared. References 1. Koepsell DR. The ontology of cyberspace: philosophy, law, and the future of intellectual property. New York: Open Court Publishing; The fourth paradigm: data-intensive scientific discovery. Willard N. Cyber bullying and cyber threats. Tokunaga RS. Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyber bullying victimization.
Computers in Human Behavior. Cyber security without cyber war. Journal of Conflict and Security Law. Lunker M. Cyber laws: a global perspective. Wang MJ, Kang J. Cybergogy of engaged learning through information and communication technology: A framework for creating learner engagement, Engaged learning with emerging technologies.
New York: Springer Publishing; Reed J. Cyber medicine: defying and redefining patient standards of care. Ind L Rev. Koschmann T. Paradigm shifts and instructional technology: An introduction. Tyagi SK. A study and analysis of existence and involvements of computer assisted E-Learning techniques for the improvement and development of medical education and knowledge dissemination. Ellaway R, Masters K. Med Teach.
Masters K, Ellaway R. Cook DA. How much evidence does it take? A cumulative meta-analysis of outcomes of simulation-based education. Med Educ. The effect of Web 2. Medical Journal of Australia ; 3 E-learning: emerging uses, empirical results and future directions. International Journal of Training and Development.
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Enhancing e-government in developing countries: managing knowledge through virtual communities. It is concerned with 24 media spectrum allocation including the allocation of mobile phone 25 wavelengths, and telephone landlines. It is formulating new rules on the 26 mergers of media companies, such as the merger between Carlton and 27 Granada. It can even comment on the way music is downloaded from 28 the internet. It will police the 9. This is 27 per cent more than the previous five regulatory bodies cost.
However, Ofcom says it now has more than statutory tasks and the extra expenditure is to cover some of its new powers. It employs people, over fewer staff than the five bodies it replaces. It is paid for mainly by the government for managing the airwaves spectrum, and by the commercial broadcasters and the telecoms companies. The BBC also contributes. How does it affect us? Ofcom is concerned with many aspects of the way digital data are trans- ferred. Most worryingly, it seems that Ofcom can be asked to investigate the content of television programmes where it is thought the content might affect the consumer.
In the past, regu- lators have not been able to directly alter the content of programmes before transmission, but instead they have offered advice and provided guidelines. Broadcasters regularly consult the regulators to ensure their programmes do not breach programme codes. This is unlikely to change, but some people think Ofcom should flex its regulatory muscles in a variety of new ways.
Broadcasters hope the new body will encourage good programming and not stifle creativity. To find out more about Ofcom, you can consult its webpage and write, telephone or email: www. There is an email address dedicated to student inquiries: contact ofcom. The political landscape 11 Convergence 2 3 Convergence is the coming together of multimedia digital technologies.
This allows for great flexi- 6 bility in delivery and storage of data. For example, a computer or a tele- 7 vision set linked to a broadband transmission system — satellite, telephone 8 line or cable — becomes an interactive communication module. It is able 9 to download music, video, sophisticated graphics, pay per view films, and 10 offer two-way interactive communication as well as receive broadcast 11 television programmes.
There are potential difficulties here for a television 12 regulator as the dividing line between a television programme and other 13 internet content is blurred. Uncut films with a 15 rating cannot be 23 shown before 8. Films 24 with an 18 rating cannot be shown before 9. In the UK, terrestrial television companies must provide some public service scheduling. This includes news and current affairs programmes and other programming that enlivens the cultural climate.
Most developed countries have some degree of public service television funded by a form of licence fee and adver- tising. All households with a television receiver are required by law to pay the licence fee. This upsets some people as it is seen as a compulsory tax. However, alternative methods of raising finance for PSB generally involve advertising or subscription fees or both. Governments do not like taxes that do not come to the treasury and are constantly looking for an alternative way to finance PSB, so far without success.
A recent Parliamentary review found that funding public service broadcasting by the licence fee was the best and most cost-effective method of maintaining the range and quality of the public service broadcasting provided by the BBC. Ofcom and public service broadcasting The terrestrial commercial television channels have a remit to provide some public service programming and to conform to the guidelines and codes set up by Ofcom.
Ofcom regulates taste and decency in all broadcasting, including BBC 3 radio and television programmes. It is already being said that Ofcom is being too heavy handed 8 in its regulation and is out of touch with modern culture. Ofcom does not 9 have the power to regulate standards of impartiality and accuracy in BBC 10 programmes.
This continues to be regulated by the BBC governors. Broadcasters have 16 been asked to provide details of schedules, content and cost of practically 17 all the programmes they have shown in the public service sphere since 18 Ofcom is asking 6, people about what they want from public 19 service broadcasting. Public service broadcasting is one 22 way of ensuring this. Until when Channel 4 began broadcasting there 23 was a duopoly of broadcasters — just the BBC and ITV — with light touch 24 regulation.
Now with multichannel commercial television as a strong force 25 there is more regulation. The Communications Act introduced quotas 26 27 to ensure that certain types of programmes, such as arts, religious 28 programmes and current affairs, do not disappear from the schedules of 29 commercial television.
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Other projects offer the highest production values 35 from script writing to casting and are both popular and come within a 36 public service remit. Key public service programmes are in the areas of education, political coverage, news, the arts, religion, and the representation of diverse social groups.
It is run in the interests of its viewers and listeners. Twelve governors regulate it, appointed by the Queen with advice from government ministers. The advantage of this form of financing is that the BBC can concentrate on providing high-quality programmes, and interactive services, catering for everyone, including minority groups and organisations, without having to satisfy shareholders looking for profits. They also set its principal objectives, and approve strategy and policy. They are accountable to licence payers and to Parliament.
BBC governors represent the public interest, and particularly the interests of viewers and listeners. The current Royal Charter and Agreement were granted in , and expire in The process of Charter renewal started in Governments continue to look at alternatives to the licence fee, and reports by Ofcom on the future funding of the BBC were sent to the government in One sugges- tion, known as top slicing, was that 5 per cent of the licence fee should be given to Channel 4 to make public service programmes.
The BBC runs eight 4 interactive national television channels, ten national radio networks, and 5 over 50 local television and radio services. Some services are on digital 6 platforms only. There is no advertising whatsoever on BBC channels, and 7 editorially the BBC is independent of any commercial or political inter- 8 ests.
The BBC receives no revenue from advertising. Commercial radio 9 and television networks derive their revenue from various forms of adver- 10 tising and commercial sponsorship. The 13 BBC is also an important provider of broadcasting and media training. It supports British production skills and talent in music, drama, film, radio 15 and television. Surveys have shown that the BBC is perceived to provide 16 excellent value for money, although it is not without its detractors.
It 17 provides an astonishing range of broadcasting on radio and television with 18 two flagship national terrestrial television channels, BBC1 and BBC2. When granting consent to the BBC, in October 25 , for a permanent online service, the Department of Culture, Media 26 and Sport set out three core requirements: 27 28 a to act as an essential resource offering wide-ranging, unique content; 29 30 b to use the internet to forge a new relationship with licence payers and 31 strengthen accountability; 32 c to provide a home for licence payers on the internet and act as a 33 trusted guide to the new media environment.
Modern international news rooms servicing domestic TV news and hour news channels require large amounts of video footage each day. A TV newsroom aims to get up- to-the-minute pictures on the air as soon as possible. This is an extremely competitive business as news channels compete for the first pictures of a breaking news story.
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The main BBC newsroom in west London currently receives about hours of video every day. The news footage comes in to a new digital newsroom, utilising the latest technology such as the Sony XDCAM disc camcorders. The advantage of the disc camera system is that it records a preview video of the recorded pictures and sound. This can be sent back to the newsroom at up to 50 times real time speed. The material can then be rapidly edited on a laptop, without the need to digitalise all the footage on the tape. Other hour news channels, such as Sky News, are similarly updating their newsroom technology, and providing faster and more sophisticated on-air and on-line services.
Sky News has a particularly fast rolling graphics service.
Funding public service broadcasting The main terrestrial television channels available in all homes are regu- lated by Ofcom. They have to provide elements of public service broad- casting. For the commercial channels there is an obligation to provide a regular, quality news service throughout the day. There are other require- ments to do with programmes for minorities. A bone of contention for ITV1 is that they are required to broadcast regular religious programmes, and Ofcom has indicated that it may drop this requirement in the future. Public service broadcasting 17 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 Figure 3.
The BBC 21 is the only public service broadcaster with no commercial funding. It is 22 funded by the licence fee.
There have been many attempts to invent an 23 alternative source of funding for what is seen by some as a retrogressive 24 compulsory tax. Other countries such as New Zealand have scrapped the 25 licence fee, and fund all channels with advertising. This has not led to a 26 better service for the viewers. Some European countries keep a smaller 27 licence fee and allow some advertising for their public service channels. This guarantees the independence of the BBC and particularly 33 its news and current affairs.
Alternative sources of funding include a 34 subscription service. This is how the public service channels in the US 35 are funded, often woefully inadequately. Another idea is to top slice the licence fee, and give some of 38 the money to other broadcasters who have a public service remit. There is the risk that public money would benefit shareholders rather than licence payers. Another idea that is often floated is that the BBC should accept advertising. This would reduce the licence fee according to the amount of revenue generated by advertising. The main argument against this is that the revenues of the commercial broadcasters, particularly ITV, Channel 4 and Five, would be severely reduced.
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