Those Who Forget the Past: The Question of Anti-Semitism
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Those Who Forget the Past is an essential volume for understanding the new bigotry of the twenty-first century. S0methings Changed. This Tide 0fMadncss. The Poet and the Murderer. Two Middle East Wars. About the Contributors Source List. Ponterotto , Shawn O. This paper argues that Global Citizenship must recognize the continued widespread adherence to religion, acknowledge religious diversity and the challenges faced by religious minorities to ensure a more comprehensive education in cultural identity, human rights, diversity and inclusion.
The paper uses the example of the Jews in the Greater Glasgow Area and Scotland to illustrate this point. A discussion and analysis of the history and contemporary manifestations of anti-Semitism is used to provide a deeper and more nuanced knowledge and understanding of this form of discrimination. Stephen McKinney stephen.
Those Who Forget the Past: The Question of Anti-Semitism
Global Citizenship, as configured in Scotland, that includes a focus on cultural identity, human rights, diversity and inclusion Learning and Teaching Scotland, The paper argues, in accord with the Council of Europe, that religion and religious diversity are key dimensions of national and international society and should be studied to ensure a greater knowledge and understanding of how they impact on the lives of people in contemporary societies. The paper continues with a brief overview of contemporary religious adherence in Scotland as represented in the national census and explains that the paper will focus on the Jewish community in the Greater Glasgow Area and Scotland The Scottish Government, However, there are issues, in some countries, about who legally qualifies for membership and how this impacts on the position of migrants, refugees and the ten million stateless people in the world UNHRC, The concept of Global Citizen is contested because citizenship is normally legally configured as membership of a state and not as membership transcending individual states Tawil, Global Citizenship, which is closely connected to Citizenship, is described as being a key context for learning across the Scottish school curriculum Education Scotland, b.
Citizenship and Global Citizenship, then, are not designated as distinct curricular subjects in school education in Scotland. This can be contrasted with the separately funded, governed and structured English school education system Holt et al. The first two strands are of particular importance for this discussion. One of the key moments in this history is the Scottish Reformation in that rejected Catholicism and, as a result, the Church of Scotland, a Presbyterian Christian denomination rooted in Calvinism, would become the predominant Christian Church Lynch, The construction of Scottish national identity was partially formed in the 19th century around the concept of a Presbyterian Protestant people Robbins, This was to be challenged by an influx of Irish Roman Catholics fleeing a series of famines in Ireland and dramatically increasing the small local Catholic population Devine, This challenge generated some sectarian hostility and, in times of economic depression such as the s, anti-Catholic campaigns Finn, There are other Christian denominations in Scotland and also a number of smaller religious minorities, most notably, the Muslims, the Jews, the Hindus, Buddhists and the Sikhs.
The national Scottish census of reported that It can be argued that all these religious traditions may be best studied in schools within the context of the curricular area of religious education, but the knowledge and understanding of religious traditions, wherever primarily addressed, should have an interdisciplinary focus that contributes to the process of educating global citizens. One of the challenges for educating global citizens in Scotland is to help young people value diversity, including religious diversity, but also understand the causes and impact of historical and contemporary forms of discrimination.
This is equally important for those who are undertaking programmes and courses in Intercultural Education at post-school level. This paper will focus on the inclusion of the Jewish community in the Greater Glasgow Area and Scotland and explore some historical and contemporary aspects of anti-Semitism.
There are accounts of the existence of individual Jews and Jewish families living in Scotland prior to the nineteenth century. There is, however, little evidence of any Jewish communities prior to this date.
Anti-Semitism: The Fight That Never Flags
There were a few academics and teachers who had converted from Judaism and worked in Edinburgh in the seventeenth century Levy, There were also a few Jewish tradesmen in Edinburgh in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Herman Lyon is noteworthy because he procured a Jewish burial place on the Calton Hill in Edinburgh in the s Kadish, a. The first recorded Jewish community of twenty families opened a place for worship in Edinburgh in and moved to larger premises in Phillips, This early community was engaged in the clothing, fur and jewel trades.
After a series of moves, a purpose-built synagogue was established in Salisbury Road Edinburgh, in with a capacity for one thousand people Kadish, a. The Jews who settled in Glasgow were to create the largest Jewish community in Scotland. The community in Glasgow established a synagogue in the city centre in the s and opened the first purpose built synagogue in Scotland in Garnethill in Collins, This grand building is described as a Cathedral synagogue, similar to other Cathedral synagogues in Victorian Britain Kadish, a.
The numbers in the Glasgow Jewish community were greatly increased by the arrival of Eastern European migrants in the s. The newcomers who spoke Yiddish settled in the Gorbals, in the south of the city, and increased the Glasgow community from 2, in to 7, within a decade Collins, This tension was possibly due to a combination of a division in social class between the affluent established Jews and the more working class Jews in the south side and a clash of religious culture Lipman, The Garnethill synagogue was considered to be an englisher shul by the Jews in the south side — a synagogue for assimilated Jews Braber, There was a further influx of Jews into Glasgow from Germany beginning in These Jews were fleeing the rise of National Socialism and on arrival in Britain were distributed to the cities which had sizeable Jewish communities at that time Grenville, There were tensions between the more settled Jews and the new arrivals around national and religious identity and there was a perception that the German Jews were less religious and had compromised their religious identity in favour of their national identity Alderman, There were Jewish bakers, butchers and grocers and Yiddish was spoken in the streets Devine, When the Gorbals was redeveloped in the s the Jewish community dispersed throughout the south side of the city and.
There are now no Jewish buildings left in the redeveloped Gorbals area Kadish, b.
In a Reform congregation was formed in Govanhill in the south side of Glasgow Braber, This congregation was small, though the numbers were increased by the arrival of the German Jews in There is justified pride about the considerable contribution of members of the Jewish community in local and national politics, Academia, Medicine, Literature and the Arts Collins, There are various popular theories posited for the rise in anti-Semitism prior to the Holocaust.
Brustein and King dismiss this theory as it cannot be substantiated across the European states. This is discounted on the grounds that other minorities were used as scapegoats and it too cannot be substantiated across the European states. The third period is the rise in anti-Semitism in Europe from the s Iganski and Kosmin, b. Iganski and Kosmin b make the connection between the rise in anti-Semitism in Britain and events in the Middle East and the reporting of these events in the British media.
Incidences of anti-Semitism, for example, increased at the inception of the second Intifada in and as a result of the Israeli occupation of the West Bank in This includes examples. The academic discussion about the breadth of the term anti-Semitism Iganski and Kosmin, a and the multifaceted nature of the term Brustein and King, and the diverse examples provided by the European Parliament help to explain the serious challenges that are faced in the analysis of incidences of anti-Semitism.
A common approach adopted by Jewish writers is to highlight the lack of concerted anti-Semitic activity in the history of Jews in Scotland and compare this with other parts of the UK and Europe. Collins and Borowski are in accord with these views. However, they also comment with Abrams on an increase of incidents of anti-Semitism since the s, which has intensified as a result of tensions in the Middle East.
Antisemitism | AJC
It is reported that some bowling clubs and golf clubs in the Greater Glasgow Area would not admit Jewish members in the s and beyond this period, prompting the establishment of a Jewish golf club in Devine, Similarly, there are very few reported incidents of anti-Semitism in the Ayr community and the small community in Greenock was well integrated into the local community. In Aberdeen, in the s, there were attempts to block both the twinning between the University of Aberdeen and a University on the West Bank and the visit of an Israeli delegation Abrams, There were further minor incidents, and in the early s, there was an increase of anti-Semitic activity caused by the conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians, though, there is no record of physical violence towards the Jewish community in Aberdeen.
Abrams notes that there has been a series of anti-Zionist non-acceptance of, and denial of legitimacy of, Jewish nationhood and anti-Semitic incidents in Dundee since the s that have led to the dwindling of the Jewish community Alderman, Other reasons for the historical low levels of anti-Semitism may be that the Jews did not compete for semi-skilled and unskilled jobs but created their own employment such as tailoring and peddling Devine, The Jewish community also relied on their own social welfare provided by the Jewish Board of Guardians and other agencies so that new arrival Jews in the Gorbals would not be a burden on public relief Collins, The history of religious discrimination in Scotland, from the nineteenth century, is dominated by the sectarian strife between Protestants and Roman Catholics Robbins, This has been marked by periods of explicit sectarian discrimination towards Catholics by the Church of Scotland in the s, anti-Catholic demonstrations in the s and the continuation of hostility through football rivalry and.
The Jews were much smaller in number than the Roman Catholic community and posed less of a threat. Further, any incidences of anti-Semitism were not on the same scale and intensity of the sectarian dispute and were not as sustained.